We study the importance of group structure in grouped functional time series. Due to the non-uniqueness of group structure, we investigate different disaggregation structures in grouped functional time series. We address a practical question on whether or not the group structure can affect forecast accuracy. Using a dynamic multivariate functional time series method, we consider joint modeling and forecasting multiple series. Illustrated by Japanese sub-national age-specific mortality rates from 1975 to 2016, we investigate one- to 15-step-ahead point and interval forecast accuracies for the two group structures.
In this study, we examine a set of primary data collected from 484 students enrolled in a large public university in the Mid-Atlantic United States region during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. The data, called Ties data, included students’ demographic and support network information. The support network data comprised of information that highlighted the type of support, (i.e. emotional or educational; routine or intense). Using this data set, models for predicting students’ academic achievement, quantified by their self-reported GPA, were created using Chi-Square Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID), a decision tree algorithm, and cforest, a random forest algorithm that uses conditional inference trees. We compare the methods’ accuracy and variation in the set of important variables suggested by each algorithm. Each algorithm found different variables important for different student demographics with some overlap. For White students, different types of educational support were important in predicting academic achievement, while for non-White students, different types of emotional support were important in predicting academic achievement. The presence of differing types of routine support were important in predicting academic achievement for cisgender women, while differing types of intense support were important in predicting academic achievement for cisgender men.
We propose a method of spatial prediction using count data that can be reasonably modeled assuming the Conway-Maxwell Poisson distribution (COM-Poisson). The COM-Poisson model is a two parameter generalization of the Poisson distribution that allows for the flexibility needed to model count data that are either over or under-dispersed. The computationally limiting factor of the COM-Poisson distribution is that the likelihood function contains multiple intractable normalizing constants and is not always feasible when using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques. Thus, we develop a prior distribution of the parameters associated with the COM-Poisson that avoids the intractable normalizing constant. Also, allowing for spatial random effects induces additional variability that makes it unclear if a spatially correlated Conway-Maxwell Poisson random variable is over or under-dispersed. We propose a computationally efficient hierarchical Bayesian model that addresses these issues. In particular, in our model, the parameters associated with the COM-Poisson do not include spatial random effects (leading to additional variability that changes the dispersion properties of the data), and are then spatially smoothed in subsequent levels of the Bayesian hierarchical model. Furthermore, the spatially smoothed parameters have a simple regression interpretation that facilitates computation. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach using simulated examples, and a motivating application using 2016 US presidential election voting data in the state of Florida obtained from the Florida Division of Elections.
There is a great deal of prior knowledge about gene function and regulation in the form of annotations or prior results that, if directly integrated into individual prognostic or diagnostic studies, could improve predictive performance. For example, in a study to develop a predictive model for cancer survival based on gene expression, effect sizes from previous studies or the grouping of genes based on pathways constitute such prior knowledge. However, this external information is typically only used post-analysis to aid in the interpretation of any findings. We propose a new hierarchical two-level ridge regression model that can integrate external information in the form of “meta features” to predict an outcome. We show that the model can be fit efficiently using cyclic coordinate descent by recasting the problem as a single-level regression model. In a simulation-based evaluation we show that the proposed method outperforms standard ridge regression and competing methods that integrate prior information, in terms of prediction performance when the meta features are informative on the mean of the features, and that there is no loss in performance when the meta features are uninformative. We demonstrate our approach with applications to the prediction of chronological age based on methylation features and breast cancer mortality based on gene expression features.
A standard competing risks set-up requires both time to event and cause of failure to be fully observable for all subjects. However, in application, the cause of failure may not always be observable, thus impeding the risk assessment. In some extreme cases, none of the causes of failure is observable. In the case of a recurrent episode of Plasmodium vivax malaria following treatment, the patient may have suffered a relapse from a previous infection or acquired a new infection from a mosquito bite. In this case, the time to relapse cannot be modeled when a competing risk, a new infection, is present. The efficacy of a treatment for preventing relapse from a previous infection may be underestimated when the true cause of infection cannot be classified. In this paper, we developed a novel method for classifying the latent cause of failure under a competing risks set-up, which uses not only time to event information but also transition likelihoods between covariates at the baseline and at the time of event occurrence. Our classifier shows superior performance under various scenarios in simulation experiments. The method was applied to Plasmodium vivax infection data to classify recurrent infections of malaria.
In omics studies, different sources of information about the same set of genes are often available. When the group structure (e.g., gene pathways) within the genes are of interests, we combine the normal hierarchical model with the stochastic block model, through an integrative clustering framework, to model gene expression and gene networks jointly. The integrative framework provides higher accuracy in extensive simulation studies when one or both of the data sources contain noises or when different data sources provide complementary information. An empirical guideline in the choice between integrative versus separate clustering models is proposed. The integrative clustering method is illustrated on the mouse embryo single cell RNAseq and bulk cell microarray data, which identified not only the gene sets shared by both data sources but also the gene sets unique in one data source.
Cognitive Diagnosis Models (CDMs) are a special family of discrete latent variable models widely used in educational, psychological and social sciences. In many applications of CDMs, certain hierarchical structures among the latent attributes are assumed by researchers to characterize their dependence structure. Specifically, a directed acyclic graph is used to specify hierarchical constraints on the allowable configurations of the discrete latent attributes. In this paper, we consider the important yet unaddressed problem of testing the existence of latent hierarchical structures in CDMs. We first introduce the concept of testability of hierarchical structures in CDMs and present sufficient conditions. Then we study the asymptotic behaviors of the likelihood ratio test (LRT) statistic, which is widely used for testing nested models. Due to the irregularity of the problem, the asymptotic distribution of LRT becomes nonstandard and tends to provide unsatisfactory finite sample performance under practical conditions. We provide statistical insights on such failures, and propose to use parametric bootstrap to perform the testing. We also demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of parametric bootstrap for testing the latent hierarchies over non-parametric bootstrap and the naïve Chi-squared test through comprehensive simulations and an educational assessment dataset.
In this paper, we study macroscopic growth dynamics of social network link formation. Rather than focusing on one particular dataset, we find invariant behavior in regional social networks that are geographically concentrated. Empirical findings suggest that the startup phase of a regional network can be modeled by a self-exciting point process. After the startup phase ends, the growth of the links can be modeled by a non-homogeneous Poisson process with a constant rate across the day but varying rates from day to day, plus a nightly inactive period when local users are expected to be asleep. Conclusions are drawn based on analyzing four different datasets, three of which are regional and a non-regional one is included for contrast.