Abstract: Accurately understanding the distribution of sediment measurements within large water bodies such as Lake Michigan is critical for modeling and understanding of carbon, nitrogen, silica, and phosphorus dynamics. Several water quality models have been formulated and applied to the Great Lakes to investigate the fate and transport of nutrients and other constituents, as well as plankton dynamics. This paper summarizes the development of spatial statistical tools to study and assess the spatial trends of the sediment data sets, which were collected from Lake Michigan, as part of Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study. Several new spatial measurements were developed to quantify the spatial variation and continuity of sediment data sets under concern. The applications of the newly designed spatial measurements on the sediment data, in conjunction with descriptive statistics, clearly reveal the existence of the intrinsic structure of strata, which is hypothesized based on linear wave theory. Furthermore, a new concept of strata consisting of two components defined based on depth is proposed and justified. The findings presented in this paper may impact the future studies of sediment within Lake Michigan and all of the Great Lakes as well.