The statistical modeling of natural disasters is an indispensable tool for extracting information for prevention and risk reduction casualties. The Poisson distribution can reveal the characteristics of 1 a natural disaster. However, this distribution is insufficient for the clustering of natural events and related casualties. The best approach is to use a Neyman type A (NTA) distribution which has the feature that two or more events occur in a short time. We obtain some properties of the NTA distribution and suggest that it could provide a suitable description to analyze the natural disaster distribution and casualties. We support this argument using disaster events, including earthquakes, floods, landslides, forest fires, avalanches, and rock falls in Turkey between 1900 and 2013. The data strongly supports that the NTA distribution represents the main tool for handling disaster data. The findings indicate that approximately three earthquakes, fifteen landslides, five floods, six rock falls, six avalanches, and twenty nine forest fires are expected in a year. The results from this model suggest that the probability of the total number of casualties is the highest for the earthquakes and the lowest for the rock falls. This study also finds that the expected number of natural disasters approximately equals to 64 per year and inter-event time between two successive earthquakes is approximately four months. The inter-event time for the natural disasters is approximately six days in Turkey.
Abstract. Unemployment is one of the most important issues in macro economics. Unemployment creates many economic and social problems in the economy. The condition and qualification of labor force in a country show economical developments. In the light of these facts, a developing country should overcome the problem of unemployment. In this study, the performance of robust biased Robust Ridge Regression (RRR), Robust Principal Component Regression (RPCR) and RSIMPLS methods are compared with each other and their classical versions known as Ridge Regression (RR), Principal Component Regression (PCR) and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) in terms of predictive ability by using trimmed Root Mean Squared Error (TRMSE) statistic in case of both of multicollinearity and outliers existence in an unemployment data set of Turkey. Analysis results show that RRR model is chosen as the best model for determining unemployment rate in Turkey for the period of 1985-2012. Robust biased RRR method showed that the most important independent variable effecting the unemployment rate is Purchasing Power Parities (PPP). The least important variables effecting the unemployment rate are Import Growth Rate (IMP) and Export Growth Rate (EXP). Hence, any increment in PPP cause an important increment in unemployment rate, however, any increment in IMP causes an unimportant increase in unemployment rate. Any increment in EXP causes an unimportant decrease in unemployment rate.