Abstract: Using financial ratio data from 2006 and 2007, this study uses a three-fold cross validation scheme to compare the classification and pre diction of bankrupt firms by robust logistic regression with the Bianco and Yohai (BY) estimator versus maximum likelihood (ML) logistic regression. With both the 2006 and 2007 data, BY robust logistic regression improves both the classification of bankrupt firms in the training set and the prediction of bankrupt firms in the testing set. In an out of sample test, the BY robust logistic regression correctly predicts bankruptcy for Lehman Brothers; however, the ML logistic regression never predicts bankruptcy for Lehman Brothers with either the 2006 or 2007 data. Our analysis indicates that if the BY robust logistic regression significantly changes the estimated regression coefficients from ML logistic regression, then the BY robust logistic regression method can significantly improve the classification and prediction of bankrupt firms. At worst, the BY robust logistic regression makes no changes in the estimated regression coefficients and has the same classification and prediction results as ML logistic regression. This is strong evidence that BY robust logistic regression should be used as a robustness check on ML logistic regression, and if a difference exists, then BY robust logistic regression should be used as the primary classifier.
This paper empirically investigates the impact of the government bailout on analysts’ forecast optimism regardingfirms in the automotive industry. We compare the results from M- and MM-robust methodologies to the results from OLS regression in an event study context and find that inferences change. When M- and MM-robust estimation methods are used to estimate the same model, the results for key control variables fall directly in line with those of similar previous studies. Furthermore, an analysis of residuals indicates that the application of M- and MM estimation methods pulls the main prediction equation towards the main sample data, suggesting a more rigorous fit. Based on robust methods, we observe changes in analyst optimism during the announcement period of the bailout, as evidenced by the significantly positive variable of interest. We support our empirical results with simulations and confirm significant improvements in estimation accuracy when robust regression methods are applied to the samples contaminated by outliers.
Abstract: This investigation utilized a robust logistic regression method (BYLOGREG) to investigate CEO bonuses prior to the 2007-2009 financial crisis. The robust logistic regression analysis determined that the year and CEO tenure affected the probability that a CEO received a bonus in the 2004-2006 study period. The analysis refuted that “management entrenchment” widely influenced CEO bonus compensation because the probability of receiving a bonus was negatively related to CEO tenure. The probability of receiving of bonus declined during the 2004-2006 study period because the percentage of CEOs that received a bonus was lowest in 2006. The robust logistic regression analysis found that the current year stock return was positively and statistically significantly related to the probability that a CEO received a bonus. The analysis also showed that managerial (financial) performance in the areas of growth of sales, ROE, and growth in earnings per share increased the probability that a CEO received a bonus. In this investigation, the size of the firm and the growth rate of equity were not statistically significant. Overall, robust logistic regression correctly classified 77% of the observations on the basis of the model variables, which indicated that most CEO bonuses could be explained by firm, CEO, and financial variables. The BY robust logistic regression proved to be robust to outliers in the CEO bonus sample studied. Interestingly, the relationship between stock return and the probability of a bonus was completely missed by a maximum likelihood (ML) logistic regression with the full CEO bonus sample, which contained outliers. After trimming the CEO bonus data set to remove outliers, the ML logistic regression coefficients changed dramatically. However, the BY robust logistic regression coefficients changed very little. Use of the residuals from the BY robust logistic equation should facilitate further inquiry into CEOs that received a bonus but were predicted to have a low probability of a bonus.