Following the outbreak of COVID-19, various containment measures have been taken, including the use of quarantine. At present, the quarantine period is the same for everyone, since it is implicitly assumed that the incubation period distribution of COVID-19 is the same regardless of age or gender. For testing the effects of age and gender on the incubation period of COVID-19, a novel two-component mixture regression model is proposed. An expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is adopted to obtain estimates of the parameters of interest, and the simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms the simple regression method and has robustness. The proposed method is applied to a Zhejiang COVID-19 dataset, and it is found that age and gender statistically have no effect on the incubation period of COVID-19, which indicates that the quarantine measure currently in operation is reasonable.
This article develops nonlinear functional forms for modeling count time series of daily deaths due to the COVID-19 virus. Our models explain the mean levels of the time series while accounting for the time-varying variances. A Bayesian approach using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is adopted for analysis, inference and forecasting of the time series under the proposed models. Applications are shown for time series of death counts from several countries affected by the pandemic.
The COVID-19 (COrona VIrus Disease 2019) pandemic has had profound global consequences on health, economic, social, behavioral, and almost every major aspect of human life. Therefore, it is of great importance to model COVID-19 and other pandemics in terms of the broader social contexts in which they take place. We present the architecture of an artificial intelligence enhanced COVID-19 analysis (in short AICov), which provides an integrative deep learning framework for COVID-19 forecasting with population covariates, some of which may serve as putative risk factors. We have integrated multiple different strategies into AICov, including the ability to use deep learning strategies based on Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) and event modeling. To demonstrate our approach, we have introduced a framework that integrates population covariates from multiple sources. Thus, AICov not only includes data on COVID-19 cases and deaths but, more importantly, the population’s socioeconomic, health, and behavioral risk factors at their specific locations. The compiled data are fed into AICov, and thus we obtain improved prediction by the integration of the data to our model as compared to one that only uses case and death data. As we use deep learning our models adapt over time while learning the model from past data.
As the major target of many vaccines and neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, the spike (S) protein is observed to mutate over time. In this paper, we present statistical approaches to tackle some challenges associated with the analysis of S-protein data. We build a Bayesian hierarchical model to study the temporal and spatial evolution of S-protein sequences, after grouping the sequences into representative clusters. We then apply sampling methods to investigate possible changes to the S-protein’s 3-D structure as a result of commonly observed mutations. While the increasing spread of D614G variants has been noted in other research, our results also show that the co-occurring mutations of D614G together with S477N or A222V may spread even more rapidly, as quantified by our model estimates.
Coronavirus and the COVID-19 pandemic have substantially altered the ways in which people learn, interact, and discover information. In the absence of everyday in-person interaction, how do people self-educate while living in isolation during such times? More specifically, do communities emerge in Google search trends related to coronavirus? Using a suite of network and community detection algorithms, we scrape and mine all Google search trends in America related to an initial search for “coronavirus,” starting with the first Google search on the term (January 16, 2020) to recently (August 11, 2020). Results indicate a near-constant shift in the structure of how people educate themselves on coronavirus. Queries in the earliest days focusing on “Wuhan” and “China”, then shift to “stimulus checks” at the height of the virus in the U.S., and finally shift to queries related to local surges of new cases in later days. A few communities emerge surrounding terms more overtly related to coronavirus (e.g., “cases”, “symptoms”, etc.). Yet, given the shift in related Google queries and the broader information environment, clear community structure for the full search space does not emerge.
It is widely acknowledged that the reported numbers of infected cases with COVID-19 were not complete. A structured approach is proposed where we distinguish cases reflected later in the numbers of confirmed cases and those with mild or no symptoms thus not captured by any systems at all. The number of infected cases in the US is estimated to be 220.54% of that reported as of Apr 20, 2020. This implies an overall infection ratio of 0.53%, and a case mortality rate at 2.85% which is close to the 3.4% suggested by WHO in March 2020.