This study analyzes the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on subjective well-being as measured through Twitter for the countries of Japan and Italy. In the first nine months of 2020, the Twitter indicators dropped by 11.7% for Italy and 8.3% for Japan compared to the last two months of 2019, and even more compared to their historical means. To understand what affected the Twitter mood so strongly, the study considers a pool of potential factors including: climate and air quality data, number of COVID-19 cases and deaths, Facebook COVID-19 and flu-like symptoms global survey data, coronavirus-related Google search data, policy intervention measures, human mobility data, macro economic variables, as well as health and stress proxy variables. This study proposes a framework to analyse and assess the relative impact of these external factors on the dynamic of Twitter mood and further implements a structural model to describe the underlying concept of subjective well-being. It turns out that prolonged mobility restrictions, flu and Covid-like symptoms, economic uncertainty and low levels of quality in social interactions have a negative impact on well-being.
Analysing seasonality in count time series is an essential application of statistics to predict phenomena in different fields like economics, agriculture, healthcare, environment, and climatic change. However, the information in the existing literature is scarce regarding the performances of relevant statistical models. This study provides the Yule-Walker (Y-W), Conditional Least Squares (CLS), and Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) for First-order Non-negative Integer-valued Autoregressive, INAR(1), process with Poisson innovations with different monthly means. The performance of Y-W, CLS, and MLE are assessed by the Monte Carlo simulation method. The performance of this model is compared with another seasonal INAR(1) model by reproducing the monthly number of rainy days in the Blackwater River watershed located in coastal Virginia. Two forecast-coherent methods in terms of mode and probability function are applied to make predictions. The models’ performances are assessed using the Root Mean Square Error and Index of Agreement criteria. The results reveal the similar performance of Y-W, CLS, and MLE for estimating the parameters of data sets with larger sample size and values of α close to unite root. Moreover, the results indicate that INAR(1) with different monthly Poisson innovations is more appropriate for modelling and predicting seasonal count time series.
The spreading pattern of COVID-19 in the early months of the pandemic differs a lot across the states in the US under different quarantine measures and reopening policies. We proposed to cluster the US states into distinct communities based on the daily new confirmed case counts from March 22 to July 25 via a nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) followed by a k-means clustering procedure on the coefficients of the NMF basis. A cross-validation method was employed to select the rank of the NMF. The method clustered the 49 continental states (including the District of Columbia) into 7 groups, two of which contained a single state. To investigate the dynamics of the clustering results over time, the same method was successively applied to the time periods with an increment of one week, starting from the period of March 22 to March 28. The results suggested a change point in the clustering in the week starting on May 30, caused by a combined impact of both quarantine measures and reopening policies.
The swift spread of the novel coronavirus is largely attributed to its stealthy transmissions in which infected patients may be asymptomatic or exhibit only flu-like symptoms in the early stage. Undetected transmissions present a remarkable challenge for the containment of the virus and pose an appalling threat to the public. An urgent question is on testing of the coronavirus. In this paper, we evaluate the situation from the statistical viewpoint by discussing the accuracy of test procedures and stress the importance of rationally interpreting test results.