There has been increasing interest in modeling survival data using deep learning methods in medical research. In this paper, we proposed a Bayesian hierarchical deep neural networks model for modeling and prediction of survival data. Compared with previously studied methods, the new proposal can provide not only point estimate of survival probability but also quantification of the corresponding uncertainty, which can be of crucial importance in predictive modeling and subsequent decision making. The favorable statistical properties of point and uncertainty estimates were demonstrated by simulation studies and real data analysis. The Python code implementing the proposed approach was provided.
Abstract: This paper evaluates the efficacy of a machine learning approach to data fusion using convolved multi-output Gaussian processes in the context of geological resource modeling. It empirically demonstrates that information integration across multiple information sources leads to superior estimates of all the quantities being modeled, compared to modeling them individually. Convolved multi-output Gaussian processes provide a powerful approach for simultaneous modeling of multiple quantities of interest while taking correlations between these quantities into consideration. Experiments are performed on large scale data taken from a mining context.
Anemia, especially among children, is a serious public health problem in Bangladesh. Apart from understanding the factors associated with anemia, it may be of interest to know the likelihood of anemia given the factors. Prediction of disease status is a key to community and health service policy making as well as forecasting for resource planning. We considered machine learning (ML) algorithms to predict the anemia status among children (under five years) using common risk factors as features. Data were extracted from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey- Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) conducted in 2011. In this study, a sample of 2013 children were selected for whom data on all selected variables was available. We used several ML algorithms such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA), classification and regression trees (CART), k-nearest neighbors (k-NN), support vector machines (SVM), random forest (RF) and logistic regression (LR) to predict the childhood anemia status. A systematic evaluation of the algorithms was performed in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC). We found that the RF algorithm achieved the best classification accuracy of 68.53% with a sensitivity of 70.73%, specificity of 66.41% and AUC of 0.6857. On the other hand, the classical LR algorithm reached a classification accuracy of 62.75% with a sensitivity of 63.41%, specificity of 62.11% and AUC of 0.6276. Among all considered algorithms, the k-NN gave the least accuracy. We conclude that ML methods can be considered in addition to the classical regression techniques when the prediction of anemia is the primary focus.
Technological advances in software development effectively handled technical details that made life easier for data analysts, but also allowed for nonexperts in statistics and computer science to analyze data. As a result, medical research suffers from statistical errors that could be otherwise prevented such as errors in choosing a hypothesis test and assumption checking of models. Our objective is to create an automated data analysis software package that can help practitioners run non-subjective, fast, accurate and easily interpretable analyses. We used machine learning to predict the normality of a distribution as an alternative to normality tests and graphical methods to avoid their downsides. We implemented methods for detecting outliers, imputing missing values, and choosing a threshold for cutting numerical variables to correct for non-linearity before running a linear regression. We showed that data analysis can be automated. Our normality prediction algorithm outperformed the Shapiro-Wilk test in small samples with Matthews correlation coefficient of 0.5 vs. 0.16. The biggest drawback was that we did not find alternatives for statistical tests to test linear regression assumptions which are problematic in large datasets. We also applied our work to a dataset about smoking in teenagers. Because of the opensource nature of our work, these algorithms can be used in future research and projects.